What’s Your Best Hybrid Work Schedule?
Leading tech innovators like Amazon, Apple, Google, Microsoft, and Salesforce embrace this working model that combines in-person collaboration with the freedom of remote flexibility.
“Hybrid is no longer just an employee perk but an employee expectation.” - Ranjit Atwal, Senior Director Analyst at Gartner.
According to Gartner, hybrid work is on a rapid incline, with the number of global knowledge workers choosing a hybrid schedule expected to leap from just 12% in 2022 to 39% by the end of 2023, confirming that this modern work style is here to stay well beyond the pandemic.
Nick Bloom – Stanford professor and the world's leading researcher on working from home (WFH), shared that he sees hybrid work as the dominant model of the future, predicting that 50% of jobs will shift to a hybrid schedule over the long run.
Bringing teams together one or more days per week to collaborate in the office sparks creativity, strengthens relationships, and nurtures company culture.
Empowering employees to work remotely on other days helps them find work-life balance and increases their productivity and enjoyment.
However, while a hybrid schedule can be a win-win for companies and people, crafting the perfect flexible schedule is an art and science with many nuances.
How can we give people freedom and flexibility without sacrificing employee productivity? What is the ideal blend of remote and on-site days? And how do we ensure people collaborate well and stay connected?
There is no one-size-fits-all hybrid model, and this article will guide you through the theories and practical steps to create a hybrid work schedule for your team.
Read it from start to finish or jump straight to:
- Hybrid Work Schedule Generator
- Understanding Work Models
- Hybrid Work Schedule Types and Examples
- Benefits of Having a Clear Hybrid Work Schedule
- How to Create a Hybrid Work Schedule for Your Team
- Challenges When Implementing the Hybrid Work Schedule
Understanding Work Models: Office, Remote, Hybrid
If you're looking to create a new working schedule for your team or company, it's important to consider what will support productivity and align with your goals and values.
Understanding the three common hybrid models that successful companies adopt can help:
- Office-centric: People work (almost always) in the office
- Remote-first or fully remote: People work (almost always) elsewhere
- Hybrid (also called Hybrid Remote): People blend in-office and remote work
Each model has pros and cons.
For example, just because a model worked for bigger companies doesn't necessarily mean it fits your team best. In the same way, that cool startup's fully-remote model may not work for your team.
To understand which model fits you best, look at the definitions of the office-centric, remote, and hybrid work models below.
1. Office-Centric Work Model
In this model, people spend most of their workweek in the office, with one or no remote days. The focus is on in-person collaboration.
Advantages: The idea behind this approach is that people working together in person can build closer relationships through casual conversations, team lunches, or chances to gather outside work hours, often leading to deeper bonds.
Companies following this model believe they can maintain a sense of community and foster a collaborative atmosphere.
But let’s be honest: an office-centric hybrid model is only necessary for companies where physical presence is essential due to equipment, customer, or collaboration needs.
For example, manufacturing firms require on-site employees to operate machinery safely. And a hotel front desk needs to be manned by a person, not an iPad. (At least for now!) Or what about that pilot – maybe not the best candidate for remote work.
Limitations: The office-centric hybrid work model offers less flexibility for employees, especially remote enthusiasts like us, who expect more autonomy and flexibility from their companies.
Another downside is that companies must maintain office space for all employees, which means you can’t optimize office space and operational costs.
With the ongoing war for talent, the office-centric model will continue to lose in popularity, except for roles that simply can’t be done remotely.
2. Remote-First or Fully Remote Work Model
In remote and remote-first models, employees work almost exclusively from home or other places and come to the office as needed in case of one.
This model is a great option for companies that care about their people, want to maximize location flexibility and optimize office costs.
Advantages: The remote-first work model offers companies and employees incredible flexibility and autonomy at work.
It allows individuals to work from their preferred location, where they feel most productive.
The remote-first model also provides access to a diverse talent pool worldwide. You can select your team's best-fit candidate from a global talent pool.
Most remote-first companies keep a physical office as a collaborative workspace for their teams and prioritize digitalization.
A remote-first hybrid model is ideal for tech companies where much work is performed independently.
For instance, software developers often require focused and uninterrupted time to code efficiently. By adopting this model, they can work from their preferred remote locations, increasing productivity.
Young and dynamic teams are likelier to embrace this model due to their high familiarity with and adaptability to remote technologies and appreciation for work flexibility and autonomy.
Limitations: A key drawback of this model is the lack of in-person collaboration and connection, which in certain teams, companies, and industries may still be important.
Moreover, the remote-first model can lead to work-from-home loneliness for some employees unless workweeks are thoughtfully designed, as many remote-first companies do.
3. Hybrid Work Model
In the hybrid remote work model, people enjoy the best in-office and remote.
The model allows us to spend focused time working from home while we still have designated days to collaborate and do things that face-to-face facilitates well.
Depending on the type of hybrid work schedule (see below), employees choose their location daily based on their preferences and tasks or follow a structure set by you as their manager, by a larger department, or by the company.
Advantages: The hybrid work model offers a range of benefits that, for many teams, even trump remote work.
It beautifully balances productive time alone and the ability to maintain a work-life balance with time together. 98% of managers report improved team productivity after switching to a hybrid or remote model.
Additionally, hybrid leads to better work-life balance, sick days decrease, a global talent pool is accessed, resource management becomes smarter, job satisfaction rises, turnover rates drop, and sustainability is enhanced through reduced office space and commuting.
Stanford research shows that employees value the ability to work outside the office as much as an 8% pay increase. In tech and finance, employees value hybrid remote work at up to 11%.
In a highly competitive job market, you may not have another choice than offering hybrid, as research shows that return-to-office mandates directly impact employee retention. We recently saw this in the case of Grindr, which lost almost half its team after mandating them back to the office.
Limitations: Not having a schedule for in-office work can mess up team dynamics and ruin impromptu interactions, negatively affecting teamwork and creativity.
If you mandate certain office days, this is solved, but you create less flexibility and move away from remote work benefits.
Moreover, building trust and a sense of belonging is never easy, and it's more challenging with a lack of the team being together.
In this sense, hybrid is the hardest model to make work, which is why we support hybrid managers to navigate this new model.
“Hybrid requires frequent changes to daily habits. One day a worker is in the office, and then the next they’re working from home and there’s no consistency or rhythm to their week. When a company tells you which days to do that, all the back and forth can be exhausting.” – Elora Voyles, People Scientist, TinyPulse
Another downside of the hybrid models versus fully remote is that for companies, the no-office-cost benefit of remote teams is gone.
Even when no one is in the office, expenses like rent, utilities, and upkeep still need to be covered, which can be cut into funds for investing in technology upgrades or employee training.
Desk booking software like Scoop, Kadance, and others can help solve this, but some costs will always be there.
Choosing a Hybrid Work Schedule
If, after considering the three working models, you believe a hybrid working model fits your team best, then you’ll want to discover the types of hybrid work schedules and which fits you most.
There are three key questions to find the best hybrid work schedule for your team or company:
- What am I trying to accomplish by introducing a hybrid schedule? Is it to downsize offices and reduce real estate costs, bring structure to how we work, or attract, engage, and retain talent better?
- How often do you want people to be in the office? Is it three days like many major companies? Are you going for an almost fully flexible schedule with the occasional office day?
- Who should choose which days people are in the office? Do you want to set it for maximum structure, leave it to managers and teams, or are you allowing employees to choose?
Points 2 and 3 strongly relate to how you answer question one. You may also look at what your competition is doing and try to deliver parity or differentiation.
Your answers to all three questions strongly impact the schedule that best fits your needs.
If you want to skip the reading and jump straight to the right schedule for you, then our generator below will give you personalized advice:
Types of Hybrid Work Schedules
We see four key hybrid work schedules in the market, ranging from 4 days in the office to seeing each other only occasionally:
- Weekly Hybrid Schedule. The vast majority of hybrid companies use this schedule, which includes the common variations Fixed Days Hybrid, Partial Choice Hybrid, and Full Choice Hybrid.
- Alternating Week Schedule. In this model, the varying teams are one week remote, and one week in the office.
- Shift Hybrid Schedule. This means that beyond deciding on which days to work, you or your team also chooses timeslots to work.
- 50:50 Schedule. In this schedule, we leave workweeks behind and look at office vs. remote over the course of a month.
- Cyclical Schedule. In this schedule, which can include Hybrid + Events, there’s a set cadence in which you work remotely and then in person.
For all of these, the decision for which office days can be made by either:
- The company
- The manager
- The employee
The decision on when to come to the office can also be made by a combination of these three.
For example, a company may set a weekly office day on Wednesday, with the manager selecting a second day to be on site and the employee a third (“Partial Choice.”)
1. Weekly Hybrid Schedule
In Weekly Hybrid Schedules, also called split schedules or cohort schedules, employees split their workweek between the office and remote days.
These split schedules are amongst the most common ones. Who decides when to come to the office further differentiates the Weekly Hybrid Schedule:
- Fixed Days: The manager or company decides which days employees should come to the office based on company guidelines of how many days.
- Partial Choice Model: The manager or company decides on one or more fixed office days, and the employee chooses the final required office day(s).
- Full Choice Model: The employee chooses which days to go to the office within a minimal requirement of 1-4 days set by the company or manager.
In all these models, employees are usually more than welcome to spend additional days in the office beyond what’s required.
The split ratio between remote and in-office days can vary, such as 3/2, 2/3, 1/4, or even 50/50 (often across multiple weeks) – it all depends on what you prioritize.
In the 3/2 Hybrid Work Schedule, team members work in the office three days a week and can work remotely the other two days. The hybrid work policy is simple to manage since everyone comes to the office on the same days of the week.
Since on office days, everyone needs a desk, the 3/2 schedule does prohibit companies from downsizing their office, which can be a downside.
The 3/2 model is currently one of the most popular models in the US, according to FlexIndex. It’s one of the reasons Fridays are dead forever.
Of course, all kinds of other splits are possible, too, like the 2/3 schedule (which we follow, only two days in the office), a weekly office day (1/4), or the almost office-centric 4/1.
2. Week-by-Week Schedule
Week-by-week Hybrid Schedule: Employees alternate between working one week remotely and fully in the office the next week.
Another model is the Week-by-Week Schedule, also known as the alternating week schedule, in which you alternate in-office and remote weeks.
Certain teams come into the office one week, and other teams come into the office in the opposite week.
When decided by the company, this can allow you to share the same office space with double the amount of people.
3. Shift Hybrid Schedule
The Shift or Staggered Hybrid Schedule is similar to the weekly work model in which only certain days are remote/hybrid, but companies or employees can set their working hours, for example, from 8 AM to 12 PM.
How this hybrid schedule works out largely depends on who decides the timeslots.
If the company or you, as the manager, chooses the time slots, then this is the most rigid schedule of all.
A schedule then specifies when employees need to be in the office (in the morning or afternoon). For example, a group of employees works from 7 AM to 3 PM, while another works from 10 AM to 6 PM.
Asana gives the example of a doctor's office: “They might use staggered schedules to ensure there’s enough staff available throughout the day. This would allow doctors to see patients virtually on their work-from-home days but still ensure there’s sufficient in-office coverage.”
This schedule provides additional flexibility if you leave it up to your team members. In this case, you still get team members together but leave people the option to take care of focused work or personal matters in the other daypart.
Allowing people to choose part days is a great way to support microproductivity, as Microsoft’s Chief Scientist Jaime Teevan proposed in Harvard Business Review.
4. 50:50 Schedule
50:50 Hybrid Work Schedule: Employees divide their work time evenly between working remotely and working from the office
You could leave the idea of workweeks completely behind you and look at it on a monthly level. This allows you to launch exotic schedules like the 50:50 model, in which team members work from home as much as they do in the office, with inconsistent days per week.
5. Cyclical Hybrid Schedule
An interesting new development is the Cyclical Hybrid Schedule, in which teams work remotely, but come together on a set schedule – for example, 6 weeks remote and then 1 week in-person.
Creeping into the remote territory, this model also includes “Hybrid + Key Events”, in which teams work remotely but get together for key events, including retrospectives and comprehensive team retreats.
Brian Elliott, founder of Future Forum and former Slack executive, shared data and examples highlighting that these cyclical hybrid schedules drive the most compliance and employee satisfaction.
The data from recent BCG research shows that “a hybrid approach focused on teams and key events results in 99% compliance and 95% of employees being satisfied.”As Brian shared to us, a "key events" approach typically looks like:
- Minimum standards for team gatherings: once a month, quarterly, twice a year.
- New team formation, in particular cross-functional teams
- Major initiative kickoffs
- Onboarding for new employees
- Immersive training events
Other interesting models:
As each team and company is unique, it doesn’t stop at these five types of hybrid schedules. Companies keep innovating, meaning we continue to see new variations of these models, including:
- Bring Your Own Hybrid (Build-Remote): Teams propose hybrid work schedules like 2/3, 3/2, or 50/50. Managers present the options to their teams. Each team decides which schedule to follow. Team leaders manage expectations. Benefits include customization, employee input, and team alignment, while downsides include limited autonomy and possible dissent.
- Flexi-Time Hybrid Schedule (Asana): With this model, team members can choose their work hours. For instance, when they work from home, they can work from 8 a.m. to noon, take care of errands, and resume working from 3 p.m. to 7 p.m. You can combine flexi-time with flexi-place or cohort schedules to provide more options for your employees and increase their flexibility.
- Cohorts Hybrid Schedule (Build-Remote): Employees are divided into groups of similar sizes, namely cohort A, cohort B, cohort C, and so on. These cohorts follow a weekly rotation schedule alternating between working from the office and from home. The main objective of this cohort schedule is to ensure that all employees across the company can interact with one another in the office at a predetermined time interval. While this is a great benefit, it brings a lot of complexity.
- Flexi-Place Hybrid Schedule (Asana): This model allows team members to choose where to work, giving them the freedom to decide on a given day. Downsizing your office won't be an issue with a hot desking reservation system. With limited in-office space, employees can reserve a workspace before coming in, but keep in mind that space may run out on certain days.
Who Decides on Office Days?
No matter the split, one question remains: who decides? And this question is more impactful than you may think.
- In certain companies, the office days are set at the company level.
- In others, it’s set by business unit or department.
- Other companies set a minimum of days and leave it up to individual managers to decide which days work best for them.
Companies set the guidelines
A benefit of the company choice is that office spaces can be divided by team on different days. This allows for a split schedule while still optimizing office space.
For instance, the marketing team might work in the office on Mondays and Tuesdays, the sales team comes in on Tuesdays only, while the operation and finance teams work on-site on Wednesdays and Thursdays.
BCG research shows that models that let individuals choose to drive more adoption and employee happiness.
Only 38% of employees have a say in their work model policy. Instead, it is dictated by either company-wide guidelines or their manager.
According to recent Scoop data, however, this number is on the rise as more companies switch from prescribed office days to flexible office days – letting the employees choose when to come into the office.
According to BCG, when the company decided where employees were, 24% were unhappy with their work location policy.
That 24% goes down to 14% if the manager decides and 6% if the team decides.
In other words, the closer to the work the policy gets set, the more satisfied employees are with it.
As the BCG research shows, letting managers choose isn’t as good as letting people decide, but it’s still miles better than leaving it to the company.
Managers typically know very well what fits their team best, so when it comes to what makes sense when it comes to being in the office, who better than individuals to decide than the manager?
Managers can decide well which day(s) each member needs to be on-site or on team days for weekly status updates, brainstorming sessions, and collaborative work.
This can sometimes lead to personal schedules.
For example, a manager may require everyone to meet in person for all-hands meetings every Tuesday.
Additionally, team members like Alex and Nicky, who lead a critical project, must be onsite on Wednesdays to facilitate seamless collaboration with their cross-functional team.
Sarah, responsible for client interactions and sales, and Mike, marketing lead, should be in the office on the same Thursday every two weeks to synchronize their sales and marketing initiatives.
A manager can put this whole picture together.
Letting people decide on their in-office days, also called the bottom-up model, means that people choose which days to come in within a guideline.
Typically, companies or managers provide guidelines for employees to follow regarding their office schedules.
For instance, they may require employees to work in the office for at least two days per week and allow each team to choose the best arrangement for them.
In adopting the bottom-up approach, teams can collaborate to determine the most suitable office schedule for everyone.
Since various teams are present in the office on different days, the company can reduce its office space.
A disadvantage of this approach is that it may be challenging to get cross-functional teams in the office on the same day.
Either way, if you value your people’s happiness, as you should, then employee choice is crucial.
Benefits of Hybrid Work Schedules
As we’ve written extensively on this website, hybrid remote schedules are highly popular because they give employees and companies what they both want.
Some key benefits of hybrid work schedules include:
- Increased Productivity: Our “Hybrid and Remote: Myth vs. Reality” research indicates that 98% of managers report improved team productivity. Hybrid work allows people to focus on work without the distractions offices provide.
- Better Work-Life Balance: Hybrid work allows us to balance work and personal life effectively. This is huge, especially for teams where people have obligations at home, like childcare. For everyone, it makes daily life more manageable and fulfilling.
- Reduced Sick Days: Hybrid remote work gives employees control over their health considerations and exposure boundaries, potentially reducing sick days.
- Larger Talent Pool: Hybrid remote work connects a diverse talent pool globally, fostering cross-cultural collaboration and personal and professional growth.
- Improved Job Satisfaction: Flexible schedules enhance job satisfaction by accommodating individual needs. Our research shows that 6 out of 10 managers cite improved job satisfaction as a key benefit.
- Reduced Turnover Rates: Hybrid-remote work contributes to higher employee satisfaction, reducing turnover rates and becoming attractive for recruitment and retention efforts.
- Enhanced Sustainability: Fewer office spaces and reduced commuting contribute to a more sustainable future with lower carbon footprints, aligning with global eco-conscious practices.
- Smarter Resource Management and Cost Savings: Companies can optimize resource allocation with flexible office attendance. Companies can save money on real estate, office supplies, and other expenses by rethinking workplace usage.
With all these benefits in mind, it’s no wonder that experts expect hybrid work to become the de facto working model of the future.
How to Create a Hybrid Work Schedule
You now fully understand work models, hybrid work schedules, and their benefits.
Moving on to this part, let’s take a look at how you actually implement your new hybrid work model and how to overcome typical challenges.
Here is a step-by-step guide to creating an effective hybrid work schedule:
1. Understand your organization's needs and culture
Start by assessing your company goals, culture, and type of work. Identify your priorities: cost savings, productivity, culture, etc.
If your company's priorities are significant cost-cutting, the hybrid work model, like office-centric, may not meet your goals. But if it’s about balancing wins for you as well as for your team, it might be the perfect fit.
This analysis lays the foundation to determine your leadership team and company's preferred approach to hybrid work.
2. Understand your team's needs and preferences
After defining your company’s needs, the next step is to gather input from employees and managers.
Even if you intend to set the schedule for them, getting their insights on how many days they prefer in-office versus remote, collaboration requirements such as the right tools and systems, or any potential challenges they may have, is crucial.
This participatory approach enhances their satisfaction and buy-in. A Gartner study says that three-quarters of digital workers want to participate in creating their hybrid work model.
3. Design the most appropriate model - the right blend
Combine top-down decision-making with bottom-up insights. When you have a holistic picture of the company's needs and employee's perspectives, you can craft a hybrid work model that strikes the ideal balance between remote and in-office work.
4. Make office days highly intentional
In the traditional onsite setup, people work together in the office daily without much thought. However, hybrid models change this by encouraging intentional collaboration.
When teams purposefully come together for in-person office days, there is a greater focus on making the most out of those interactions.
This can include team meetings with fun activities, brainstorming sessions, or team-building events like games and shared meals.
Working together this way adds meaning and purpose to the time spent in the office beyond individual work. Collaborating thoughtfully makes these moments worthwhile.
Respondents in BCG research were eight times more likely to want to work in person for affiliation and development compared with doing focus work (such as analysis, emails, and writing reports) and administrative tasks; they often perceive the latter two categories to be more efficient when carried out remotely.
The research also notes that “the amount of time spent varies by role type. On average, individual contributors spend a little more than one-third (37%) of their time on work they believe is done most effectively in person (such as training, social events, and collaboration).
Meanwhile, managers and executives spend close to half their time (49%) on work they believe is done most effectively in person (such as onboarding new hires and giving feedback).”
5. Pilot the hybrid work schedule
Before full implementation, test your hybrid work schedule with a pilot phase.
During this stage, gather feedback through surveys and interviews on what works well and what can be improved.
Piloting your schedule allows you to identify potential challenges, fine-tune the model, and improve further. It also increases employee buy-in and allows you to solve issues before rolling out the new schedule to all team members.
6. Document the model structure and clear guidelines
Once the pilot has helped refine the hybrid model, document it clearly for your company or team.
Outline a clear hybrid work policy around core hours, meetings, expectations for in-office days, collaboration norms, and other guidelines.
Ensure the responsibilities of managers and employees are clear, or you and your team members.
7. Build a healthy team meeting cadence
Hybrid work schedules include regular team gatherings during in-office days.
A clear schedule with specific team activities on certain days can significantly enhance transparency and alignment.
When team updates, or stand-up meetings are consistent, team members can prepare in advance and actively contribute to the team's objectives. Additionally, team members can better understand the rhythm of the team's work and when their colleagues are available and accessible.
8. Roll out and refine the hybrid work schedule
With learnings from the pilot, it's time to start rolling out the hybrid schedule organization-wide.
Continue to gather feedback, monitor productivity, and address any pain points.
Refine policies and team schedules to optimize how hybrid work helps your business and people.
9. Review the effectiveness, monitor success, and adopt
At least quarterly, assess the overall effectiveness of your hybrid schedules.
Look at metrics like productivity, engagement, and turnover.
Keep adapting to improve how hybrid work functions across your organization.
Challenges in Implementing Hybrid Work Schedules
Implementing hybrid work schedules presents challenges you must address to ensure a smooth transition and a productive work environment.
The BCG research mentioned before shows that many people don’t believe companies are putting the right efforts into hybrid work.
Here are some common challenges you might face with our tips to address them:
1. Lack of clarity around policies and guidelines
When policies and guidelines are unclear, it's often because of communication gaps, inconsistent expectations, and unclear directions.
This is because there wasn't enough planning and communication upfront.
Companies fail to gather employee input and preferences before implementing the guidelines and don't clearly define why they want to switch to hybrid work.
As a result, employees are left unsure what's expected of them, how to collaborate across locations, and when they should be in the office.
To avoid this, create a clear hybrid working policy that includes the hybrid schedule framework, expectations, ways of working together, communication channels, and tools.
After launching the hybrid guidelines and policy, ensure consistency in employee communication, and use a centralized platform for sharing policies and resources to ensure accessibility for all employees.
>> If you're looking for a more comprehensive hybrid policy, check out our Hybrid working policy – What, Why, and How?
2. Bias toward in-office employees
The preference for in-office employees stems from the belief that they are more dedicated, productive, and involved than their remote counterparts.
This way of thinking can lead to unfairness and partiality within the company, affecting decision-making processes such as performance evaluations, pay, promotions, and advancement opportunities.
To avoid this:
- Make expectations clear for all employees, no matter where they work.
- Use planning tools and time management systems to monitor team progress and individual performance and avoid making assumptions based on an employee's location.
- Ensure equal access to opportunities by providing career development, promotions, and recognition based on performance metrics and outcomes, not physical presence.
3. Collaboration issues
Collaboration becomes a big challenge when employees are spread out across different locations.
Remote collaboration issues can seriously threaten productivity and project success without a clear hybrid schedule. This can lead to miscommunication, delays, and people not being available when they're needed.
All of these factors can negatively impact the quality of work and slow down team progress.
To avoid this:
- Use the right team communication tools for hybrid and remote collaboration. This includes video conferencing software, project management tools, and communication platforms.
- Additionally, align the team on rules and requirements for hybrid communication and coordination, such as response times, weekly team meetings, and biweekly one-on-one meetings.
4. Weakening social connections and culture-building
Companies often forget that employees need more than just work to thrive.
Calling people back to the office won't do much to foster team connection or engagement unless more specific efforts are made.
Employees can still feel lonely, stressed, disconnected, and even consider quitting if they don't feel part of the team and the team dynamics aren't strong enough to motivate them.
To avoid this:
- Find ways to create a sense of community and belonging for all employees. You can do simple things but work like regular icebreakers to spice up team meetings and get to know each other. AI Icebreaker Generator was born to assist you with this!
- Designate specific days for all-team connection events such as happy hours, do-it-yourself workshops, and show-and-tell sessions.
A well-defined hybrid work schedule is the key to unlocking its full benefits for employees and companies.
It's a win-win situation where employees can be free to balance work and personal life while being more productive.
At the same time, companies can create a healthy work environment, tap into a global talent pool, and save costs.
It sounds amazing, right?
But it all starts with the right strategic approach.
Our guide and templates are there to help you embark on this transformative journey and make the transition to successful hybrid work adoption.
And if we can help you more hands-on, with a workshop or discussion, please contact us!